Rice is a member of the grass family (Gramineae). The fruits are known as a caryopsis or grain, are one-seeded, and can contain a large concentration of starch. Return on investment of about 20.8% – 37.3% on Rice farming.

Classified in the genus Oryza, there are two species of domesticated rice— O. sativa and 0. glaberrima. 0. sativa is the most common and often cultivated plant, occurring in Africa, America, Australia, China, New Guinea, and South Asia. The natural habitat of rice is tropical marshes, but it is now cultivated in a wide range of subtropical and tropical habitats. Rice plants produce a variety of short- to long-grain rices, as well as aromatic grains. There are three different types of rice: japonica, javanica, and indica. Japonica rice varieties are high yielding and tend to be resistant to disease. Javanica types of rice fall between japonica and indica varieties in terms of yield, use, and hardiness. Although quite hardy, indica yield less than japonica types and are most often grown in the tropics.